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As an indispensable unit of process equipment, heat exchanger is widely used in petroleum, chemical industry, power, light industry, machinery, metallurgy, transportation, pharmaceutical and other engineering fields.
According to statistics, in modern petrochemical enterprises, heat exchanger investment accounts for about 30%~40% of the total investment in plant construction; In ammonia plants, heat exchangers account for about 40% of the total number of equipment. It can be seen that the heat exchanger has an important impact on the construction investment and economic benefit of the whole enterprise.
I. classification of heat exchangers
1.According to the use of heat exchanger classification
(1)the most commonly used -- heater: the heater is used to heat the fluid to the required temperature. The heated fluid does not change phase during the heating process. The removable plate heat exchanger is used in all room temperature applications.
(2)Preheater: the preheater is used for preheating the fluid to improve the efficiency of the whole process. Most of them are mainly used in food industry and chemical industry.
(3) superheater: the superheater is used to heat saturated steam and make it reach the state of overheating. Most shell and tube heat exchangers are used.
(4) evaporator: the evaporator is used to heat liquid and make it evaporate and vaporize.
(5) reboiler: reboiler is a special equipment in the distillation process. It is used to heat the condensed liquid and make it reheated and vaporized.
(6) cooler: the cooler is used to cool the fluid to the required temperature.
(7) condenser: the condenser is used for condensing saturated steam to release latent heat for condensation and liquefaction.
2.According to the shape and structure of heat transfer surface
(1) tubular heat exchanger: the tubular heat exchanger conducts heat transfer through the wall surface of the pipe. According to the structure of the heat transfer pipe, it can be divided into tubular heat exchanger, tubular heat exchanger and coil heat exchanger. Tubular heat exchangers are most widely used.
(2) plate heat exchanger: the plate heat exchanger conducts heat transfer through the plate. According to the structure of heat transfer plate, it can be divided into plate heat exchanger, spiral plate heat exchanger, plate fin heat exchanger and hot plate heat exchanger.
3.According to the materials used in the heat exchanger
(1) metal material heat exchanger: metal material heat exchanger is made of metal materials, common metal materials are carbon steel, alloy steel, copper and copper alloy, aluminum and aluminum alloy, titanium and titanium alloy.
Due to the high thermal conductivity of metal materials, the heat transfer efficiency of this kind of heat exchanger is high
(2) non-metallic material heat exchanger: non-metallic material heat exchanger is made of non-metallic materials, common non-gold scrap materials include graphite, glass, plastic and ceramics.
This kind of heat exchanger is mainly used for corrosive materials because the thermal conductivity of non-metallic materials is small, so its heat transfer efficiency is low.